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  • 2013

¿Debo quedarme una vivienda si no me la entregan en plazo?

Published by Editorial Department in Civil Law comment
Diario Jurídico - Debo quedarme una vivienda si no me la entregan en plazo

La reciente sentencia de la Sala 1ª de lo civil del Tribunal Supremo, de 11 de abril de 2013, llama más la atención no tanto por la novedad del criterio que aplica, ya que viene a recoger la misma linea jurisprudencial hasta ahora seguida por La Sala, sinó por lo mundano del supuesto de hecho que recoge. 

Es un caso muy típico, donde se plantean también dos figuras jurídicas emblemáticas: La resolución contractual y la excepción del contrato no cumplido (exceptio non adimpleti contractus).

 

El supuesto de hecho es el siguiente: Un particular interpone una demanda contra una promotora a los efectos de que declare incumplido, y por tanto resueltos, los contratos de compraventas suscritos con una promotora por incumplimiento de la misma en el plazo de entrega de las viviendas; así como la devolución de las cantidades entregadas a cuenta del precio. Por su lado, la promotora también interpuso demanda contra la compradora solicitando la elevación a público de los contratos de compraventa y el pago del precio. En este caso, la parte compradora alegó la exceptio non adimpleti contractus en el sentido de que el incumplimiento previo de la promotora por no entregar las viviendas en plazo no le permitía reclamar el precio de las compraventas. Ambos procedimientos se acumularon tramitándose en uno mismo y en el cual se obtuvo la sentencia comentada.

 

La sentencia del Tribunal Supremo confirma las sentencias de primera y segunda instancia, dando la razón al promotor de la obra y condenando a la compradora al cumplimiento del contrato. Para ello, el Tribunal utiliza un razonamiento claro y lógico que sirve a la vez para resolver tanto la resolución contractual como la exceptio non adimpleti contractus.

 

Para empezar, centrémonos en la exceptio non adimpleti contractus, o excepción de contrato no cumplido. Esta excepción tiene lugar cuando el acreedor exige el cumplimiento sin haber cumplido ni ofrecido cumplir su prestación. Cuando se da este caso, el deudor puede, mediante esta excepción, oponerse y rechazar la acción de cumplimiento, cuando se trate del incumplimiento de una obligación básica de los contratantes. Que se estime esta excepción significa suspender provisionalmente la obligación del deudor en tanto en cuanto el acreedor no cumpla previamente su obligación (lógicamente estamos frente a obligaciones sinalagmáticas).

 

En nuestro supuesto de hecho al reclamar el promotor el precio de la compraventa y la elevación a público de los contratos la compradora se opuso a su pretensión alegando que la promotora había incumplido el contrato por no haber entregado las viviendas en la fecha pactada y por tanto, no le era exigible el pago.

 

Como hemos dicho al inicio, tanto esta excepción como la petición de resolución contractual que efectuaba la compradora fueron desestimadas con el siguiente razonamiento: “El retraso en el cumplimiento no es causa justificactiva de la resolución del contrato.” ¿ Y ello por qué? La Sala razona que el carácter de esencial de los plazos de entrega establecidos se trata de una cuestión de naturaleza interpretativa. Así, desde la interpretación literal y sistemática de las estipulaciones pactadas (en el supuesto en concreto planteado) se observa, que la determinabilidad de los plazos de entrega no fue revestida de la condición de término esencial para los compradores. De forma que en los propios criterios de determinabilidad del plazo se dio entrada a la condicionalidad del mismo con referencia o remisión al desenvolvimiento de otros hechos relevantes en la consecución de la obra: “concesión de la licencia de obras y planeamiento de ejecución de la obra”. Del mismo modo, el contrato únicamente reflejaba como condición resolutoria a favor de la parte vendedora (promotora) el impago de cualquiera de las cantidades aplazadas. Por tanto, no hay entrada a imputar a la promotora un incumplimiento contractual que generara la resolución del contrato por haber entregado la obra con cierto retraso, cuando las partes únicamente contemplaron como causa de resolución la falta del precio aplazado.

 

En consecuencia, la conclusión que debemos extraer de esta sentencia es que: A no ser que así se fije expresamente en el contrato, el mero retraso de la entrega de la obra no podrá considerarse como resolutorio cuando el término no sea configurado como esencial, no se frustre la finalidad del contrato y el cumplimiento tardío siga siendo útil e idóneo para la satisfacción de los intereses de las partes.

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